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Python Virtual Environment (venv): easy guide for beginners

When diving into Python programming, one of the most useful tools you’ll encounter is the virtual environment, often referred to by its tool name venv. A virtual environment for Python is used to manage the dependencies of Python packages. Even though beginner Python programmers might not be concerned with dependency management. And some might not even be aware that it could be a problem. However, it will save you a lot of headaches if you get into the habit of using virtual environments for your projects as soon as possible. What is a Virtual Environment? In Python, a virtual environment…

Mocking in python tests: practical examples

What is mocking when it comes to python tests? Mocking is a way to simulate and control the behavior of functions or objects. Typically this type of control is necessary when unit testing code that deals with systems external to our own code. Why mock external systems? The main issue is with external systems unpredictability, we have limited control over the state of these external systems, making tests potentially very brittle. For example when code reads data from disk or a database. If there is a piece of functionality that reads and modifies files on disk we would have to…

Continuous testing python code with pytest: how to

In this article, we will look at simple and straightforward ways to set up continuous testing of python code for your local machine. After we complete these steps we will be able to get real time updates to test results in a terminal every time we save a code file. You can find an example project in the following repository. Why continuous testing The main motivator to having continuous testing is, instantly letting us know when a code change has broken some piece of functionality. Continuously testing python code will give us confidence that our code is robust. Furthermore, Continuous…

Dockerized Flask RESTful API: how to

We are going to build a simple dockerized Flask RESTful API for managing collectors items. We will do this by implementing a simple REST API that let’s a client application manipulate a collectors_item resource. The REST API we will build will allow create, read, update, and delete actions on collectors_items. We will use the Python library Flask to do this. Together with a number of Flask plugins to make things easier. At the end we will also dockerize this API. In will continue to build out this project in other tutorials. For that reason, we need a solid, scalable foundation,…